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塔设备是化工生产中重要的单元设备之一。塔设备则是通过其内部的结构使气(汽)液两相或液液之间充分接触,进行质量传递和热量传递。通过塔设备完成的单元操作有精馏、吸收、解吸、萃取、洗涤、冷却及气体增湿等。

塔设备按其内部结构分成板式塔和填料塔等。板式塔中设有一定数量的塔盘,气体从塔的下部进入塔体,液体从塔体的顶部进入塔体;上升气体与下降的液体在每层塔盘上进行传质。填料塔内装有一定高度的填料层,如所需填料层高度较高时,可将填料分成几段。液体沿填料表面呈膜状向下流动,气体自下向上穿过填料层与膜状液体接触,进行质量传递。塔填料分为两类:散堆填料和规整填料。散堆填料的材质主要有金属、塑料和陶瓷;规整填料的材质主要有金属薄板或丝网,以及塑料丝网。

Tower equipment is one of the important unit equipment in chemical production. Tower equipment is through its internal structure to make gas (vapor) liquid two-phase or liquid-liquid full contact, mass transfer and heat transfer. The unit operations completed by the tower equipment include distillation, absorption, desorption, extraction, washing, cooling and gas humidification.

Tower equipment is divided into plate tower and packed tower according to its internal structure. There are a certain number of trays in the plate column, the gas enters the tower body from the lower part of the tower body, and the liquid enters the tower body from the top of the tower body; the ascending gas and the falling liquid carry on the mass transfer on each tray. A certain height of packing layer is installed in the packing tower. If the height of packing layer is high, the packing can be divided into several sections. The liquid flows downward along the packing surface in the form of film, and the gas passes through the packing layer from bottom to top and contacts with the membrane liquid to transfer mass. Tower packing can be divided into two types: bulk packing and regular packing. Bulk packing materials are mainly metal, plastic and ceramic; structured packing materials are mainly metal sheet or wire mesh, and plastic wire mesh.